In the digestive system, approximately 1.5-2 meters long part of the small intestine after the small intestine is called a colon or large intestine, the last 15-20 cm part of this structure is called as the rectum.
Colorectal cancer is seen one in every 50 people during their life. The most important symptoms are;
1. Changes in defecation routines
2. Bleeding in defecation
3. Thinning of defecation like a pencil
4. Weight loss due to unknown reasons
6. Excessive fatigue
Surgical treatment is the main step of cancer treatment. But it is necessary to observe whether cancer has spread out distant organs (liver, lung, brain, bone etc.) Tumorous part is removed together with surrounding solid tissues in the surgical method. Besides, the tissue which is called as mesentery binding the intestine to the body is removed with lymph glands. In rectum cancers, the tumor is removed with some parts of the left side of the large intestine and both ends are combined together. When it is not possible to combine the ends, surgeon anastomoses the end of the solid intestine to the abdominal wall and closes the other end. This is called the colostomy. The stool is taken out with special colostomy bags. This situation is temporary in many patients; it is closed when colon or rectum recovery is completed after surgery. The colostomy may be permanent in patients who have a tumor very close to the anus in lower parts of the rectum.
In recent years, especially in intestinal tumors spreading to liver and lungs, surgical treatment is applied even when the tumor in that region is completely removed and results become satisfactory for patients.