Adrenal Gland Diseases

Adrenal glands are the glands which are located in the upper pole of bilateral kidneys and not associated with renal functions, but they have hormone-secreting functions. They are 30 x 50 x 10 mm size and 4-5 gr weight. Adrenal glands are composed of two layers as cortex and medulla; cortisol, aldosterone, androgen and estrogen are secreted from cortex while medulla layer synthesis adrenalin and noradrenalin.



eAs the most prominent metabolic effects of cortisol, anti-inflammatory and the immunosuppressive effect is blood pressure maintenance, decreased bone formation, increased insulin resistance (diabetic effect) and lipolysis and increase in proteolysis income. Excessive secretion of cortisol may be due to the cerebellum, ectopic or direct adrenal hyperplasia, adenoma or cancer. As a result, Cushing syndrome occurs. Typical clinical findings include weight gain, swelling in the body, thickening of the neck, cracks in the abdominal skin.



Excess secretion of Aldosterone may lead to a lack of potassium in the blood and hypertension. This clinic table is named as Conn syndrome. The excessive function of the medullar layer in adrenal gland causes the clinic table called pheochromocytoma. Hypertension, palpitation and flushing are typical findings. Surgical intervention is performed in laparoscopic (closed) manner.